As per Mr. Graham, convertibles are smaller into the risk compared with the common stock of the same company. We also know that preferred stockholders get first preference compared to the common stock for dividend/interest and also at liquidation. Convertibles are more related to common stocks rather than debt instruments.
But always a question that when to sell convertibles? Should we opt for the conversion to common stock? Or keep on holding a bond and getting interested in it?
When the company is doing well, growing more than a cost of capital, generating higher return ratios, then it is advisable to hold convertible and let them getting convert to common stock.
If the company has an average performance, average return ratio, no clue for potential decent growth then it is advisable to hold convertible and keep getting interested in it.
Generally, warrant or stock option are not recorded under the common stock capitalization and also, EPS is shown without an impact of it. So that we need to add those warrant or the stock option to the outstanding equity shares and consider EPS. Company issues warrant when they require a capital, prepayment of bond / preferred stock, etc. But this is not a suitable way to raise capital. If a company wants to issue a common stock then they need to directly issue to shareholders on the prevailing market price rather issue a warrant on the below market price. This will result in more dilution of equity compared to the issue at a higher price.
Disclosure – Companies mentioned in the article are just for an example & educational purpose. It is not a buy/sell/ hold recommendation.
When the market is into the bull phase, each and every stock in upward momentum. So that everyone who has made an investment is shining and looks like a genius. But we should understand that earning during a bull phase is not our skill, it’s has a role of luck also which has supported us. Our actual skill comes during a bear phase, while we protect our wealth or fall less. But we get confuse and does not appreciate the role of luck during the bull market and make blame to the luck, market, other external factors during the bear market. Such behavior stops us from growing into the investment field.
If we could not survive during a bear phase then we definitely going to wipe out or end up with the lower return. But bull phase of the market makes us tempting and overconfidence to our skill rather make an appreciation of luck which has actually perform a role.
Jerry Tsai was run Fidelity Capital Fund by the year 1957 and he was one of the celebrity fund managers during that time. And everyone eager to observe what he was doing.
Mr. Jerry style of managing fund-
Mr. Jerry has earned a return of 296% in the year 1958-1965 compared to 166% return of conservative equity funds. In the year 1965, Mr. Jerry has sold his ownership stake of Fidelity back to the Fidelity for $2.20 million and launched Manhattan Fund.
Mr. Jerry holds a few of the stocks during the year 1968-69 was Polaroid, Xerox, and IBM. These stocks were traded more than 50 times P/E ratio due to the high growth of earning. And University Computing, Mohawk Data, and Fairchild Camera traded at several‐hundred times their trailing 12‐month earnings.
We should be always prepared for the bear phase of the market. And also should avoid hot stocks during a time. Whenever I make any investment decision, I keep the year 1929 – great depression to my mind. So that I can survive and stay prepared for a bear phase of the market. When the market is into the bull phase, everyone talks about the return and focus only on earning a return, they do not like to talk about the risk and also do not focus on the risk. Such behavior has proven as a danger for us. And our behavior also responsible for inviting a bear phase from the bull phase.
The game which is played by Mr. Jerry was not a long term surviving but he believes that he can survive for the long term because he has huge insights for the market moves. And he was overstated for his own skills. We need to understand that everyone can earn during a bull market but survival during the bear market is essential. If things do not fall under the criterion then we should avoid it rather chase for it. Not great company will be a great investment at any price. If we are not able to understand it, then does not able to survive for the long term.
If someone has bought this company during the March-2000, at the high price of around Rs.215 then after the 19 years of the period, he gets returned at 7% CAGR. And if enter to the similar company at the low price of around Rs.138 during the March-2000 then after the 19 years of the period, he gets a returned of 9% CAGR (*Considering recent all-time high price for calculating returns). Though revenue has grown at 26% CAGR, Operating profit grown at 23% CAGR and Net profit also grown at 23% CAGR during the same period. The company is supported by a good management team, good business, leadership position into the industry. During March-2000, the company was traded at 64x P/E at the low price of Rs.138 and this multiple are common nowadays and we consider it as a quality company ask for the premium. We cannot estimate which valuation multiple is high or low but we can understand that what is reasonable and what is not.