We do not have data available for a century in the Indian stock market so that I have done a calculation with available data. All data are taken from BSE India and RBI site.
When we have seen a huge return into the past from the equities then it is not necessary to consider a similar kind of return into the future. Reality is that common stock prices related to the earnings and dividend from the particular companies or basket of companies. If the company fails to deliver earnings and dividend then it is obvious that the company will not deliver a similar return in the future.
This example shows that growth in earnings and dividend has an impact on the price of the companies and basket of companies (Indices). If earning/dividend growth contentiously falling or depressed during a time then prices of the securities also have an adverse impact. So that we can see that during the year range 2011-2019 or 2016-2019, SENSEX has increased more rapidly compared to the EPS growth. Now, either EPS to grow much rapidly or SENSEX has to fall. Or it can also happen that SENSEX can remain in the range till EPS growth does not match to the average return. For matching the average return, either EPS has to grow by 20-22% or SENSEX has to fall 22-25%. This study can provide a similar result with particular stocks.
When the difference between earning yield to bond yield and dividend yield to bond yield start getting lower than we can think that particular stock or basket of the stocks becoming overvalued. This is one of the effective indicators where we can see that when Earning yield / Bond yield has cross 0.67-0.70x then SENSEX has provided us an attractive investment opportunity and when Earning yield / Bond yield has gone below 0.67-0.70x then we need to decide to liquidate our position to the SENSEX in a phased manner.
The stock market does not become less risky just due to advancement to the prices of it. I have seen many people enter into the market or the particular stocks when the price of it starts increasing.
We have seen during the series of Mr. Howard Marks, The Most Important Things that if everyone thinks in the same way then that thinking getting discounted to the price and will not able to get similar kind of returns for the future.
Above mentioned parameter, we can check into the current scenario where real growth of the corporate earnings was not much and the stock market has performed due to the speculative growth. Everyone starts preferring equity as an asset class to invest due to the recent past return. Now, such a scenario is unfavorable for investors. Absent of earning growth does not attract higher valuation for a longer period.
Disclosure – Companies mentioned in the article is just for an example & educational purpose. It is not a buy/sell/ hold recommendation.
Read for more detail: The Intelligent Investor by Benjamin Graham, Jason Zweig