13 – ONCE A DARLING, NOW AN EVIL

The 13th part of Series “Once a darling, now an evil”. This series is based on the companies which were once upon a time darling of the market and now, it has wiped out the majority of all those gains. I am trying to put some of the number-crunching facts by which we have identified ongoing issues in the companies and have saved our wealth.

I am starting this part with one of the company is in the business of manufacturing and trading of iron and steel products which has an all-time high price of ~Rs.443 in 2012 and now last traded price at Rs.1.59.

Surana Ind01

In the first instance this company having a huge sales growth. But PAT has huge volatility.

So, we go deeper ….

Surana Ind02

Here, we can see that debtor day and inventory days are growing rapidly and assets utilization & return ratio are falling.

I would like to go further detail of it.

Surana Ind03

Here, we can see that CFO is very volatile with cumulative CFO of FY09-12 is Rs.-20 cr whereas cumulative PAT is Rs.88 cr so that CCFO<CPAT which indicates that the company has a working capital issue which we have seen in debtor days and inventory days also.

Surana Ind04

The company shows good depreciation cover because of the capitalization of assets. One can improve depreciation cover either through improving EBIDTA or by reducing depreciation. If an asset is capitalized then it is not expensed in the same year the asset is purchased. So that here the company has selected to reduce a depreciation.

Actual Journal entry of depreciation

Depreciation A/C Dr

            To Accumulated Depreciation or Fixed Assets A/C

Here, depreciation charge at income statement which will reduce the bottom-line of the company. And also added to the accumulated depreciation or directly reduces from the fixed assets so that value of fixed assets gets reduced.

But what happens when the company has decided to go for capitalization of depreciation

Fixed Assets A/C Dr

            To Cash A/C

Here, the value of fixed assets gets increased rather than getting it reduced and cash will directly getting reduce with that amount. The income statement does not have any impact it which resulted in reduces depreciation expenses and improves bottom-line.

So that when the company is making a capitalization of depreciation then we have to look at the FCF rather than just check CFO. And when we go for FCF then it’s negative in all the periods. Capitalizing an expenditure enhances current profitability and increases reported cash flow from operations. Capitalization of depreciation will increase the value of assets which is not a part of CFO but it’s a part of CFI so that FCF will provide us a better picture.

Also, the company does not have any interest cover.

Disclosure – Companies mentioned in the article are just for an example & educational purpose. It is not a buy/sell/ hold recommendation.

This series contains learning from books –

Financial Shenanigans

Quality of Earnings

The Financial Numbers Game

Creative Cash Flow Reporting

12 – ONCE A DARLING, NOW AN EVIL

The 12th part of Series “Once a darling, now an evil”. This series is based on the companies which were once upon a time darling of the market and now, it has wiped out the majority of all those gains. I am trying to put some of the number-crunching facts by which we have identified ongoing issues in the companies and have saved our wealth.

I am starting this part with one of the company is in the business of global education company, with presence across the US, 40 counties in the UK, Pan India, Singapore, 9 countries in MEA, Hong Kong and 2 countries in the Caribbean which has an all-time high price of ~Rs.437 in 2008, ~Rs.338 in 2012 and now last traded price at Rs.1.77.

CoreEdu01

In the first instance this company having huge sales & PAT growth. Also, the narrative of the business seems good. But such growth and good narrative should not be a reason for investment.

So, we go deeper ….

CoreEdu02

Here, we can see that debtor day and inventory days are growing rapidly with fall in payable days which has to turn out a cash conversion cycle to positive from negative & growing rapidly. Assets utilization & return ratio are falling.

I would like to go further detail of it.

CoreEdu03

Here, we can see that CFO is lower than PAT with cumulative CFO of FY07-12 is Rs.779 cr whereas cumulative PAT is Rs.982 cr so that CCFO<CPAT which indicates that company has a working capital issue which we have seen in debtor days and inventory days also.

CoreEdu04

If we here look at the depreciation cover then initially it was higher but that is due to lower depreciation rate. Later on, that depreciation rate has become almost double. This has an impact on CFO.

CoreEdu05

We can see that the borrowing part is growing in overall sources of funds and on the other side the highest part is other assets.

Let’s go deeper into it one by one.

CoreEdu06

Here, we can see that company has software development is in inventories but similar inventories are not available with Infosys and TCS annual reports, even not in their initial years’ reports. The company is capitalizing inventories as well as few other expenses on the name of inventories which has boosted profits but has affected balance sheet and cash flow statement.

Journal entry of Inventory

Cost of goods sold expenses Dr

            To Inventories

So when inventory gets sold costs are recognized into income statement but if you keep showing inventory not sold out then cost also gets understate which boosts profit artificially.

CoreEdu07

Here, we can see that company has intangible assets under development is Rs.529 cr in FY2012 and Rs.313 cr in FY11; Goodwill on Consolidation (arises due to investment in subsidiaries) Rs.118 cr in FY2012 and Rs.70 cr in FY11. These two items are 18% of the balance sheet. This is again a capitalization of expenses to balance sheet.

Journal entry of cost capitalization into assets

  • Assets Dr

                        To Cash

When we recognize assets created as expenses –

  • Expenses Dr

                       To Assets

So that cash keeps on reducing but borrowing keeps growing because there was just a capitalization of costs and not actual assets creation. This again boosts profits but when we look at the FCF then FCF always comes negative.

CoreEdu08

The company got an advance from group companies which increases the current liabilities part.

CoreEdu09

Here, the company has created provisions for fringe benefit taxes which a tax that an employer has to pay in lieu of the benefits that are given to his/her employees. A company has a pending to pay it means either company does not have enough money to pay it or they have created provision during the good time so that they can write back to boost profit.

Journal entries

When provision/liabilities get created

Profit & Loss A/C DR

           To Provision/liabilities A/C

When the provision was written back

Provision/liabilities A/C DR

            To Profit & Loss A/C

The company can boost profits whenever it requires to do.

CoreEdu10

The company has Rs.58 cr in the current account and Rs.37 cr of cheques on hand which is combined 60% of total cash and cash equivalents. Why does the company need to keep large funds into a current account where it does not get any interest?

In addition to all the above factors, the company has given a loan to related parties worth of Rs.116 cr in FY12, investment into subsidiaries worth of Rs.34 cr in FY12. We can see that company has put good efforts to hide many aspects but if we go into deeper, understand numbers, and read annual reports then it can visible to us.

Disclosure – Companies mentioned in the article are just for an example & educational purpose. It is not a buy/sell/ hold recommendation.

This series contains learning from books – Financial Shenanigans Quality of Earnings The Financial Numbers Game Creative Cash Flow Reporting

11 – ONCE A DARLING, NOW AN EVIL

The eleventh part of Series “Once a darling, now an evil”. This series is based on the companies which were once upon a time darling of the market and now, it has wiped out the majority of all those gains. I am trying to put some of the number-crunching facts by which we have identified ongoing issues in the companies and have saved our wealth.

I am starting this part with one of the company is in the business of exports of software and IT related services which has an all-time high price of ~Rs.349 in 2012 and now last traded price at Rs.0.35.

Zylog 01

In the first instance this company having huge sales and profit growth. This creates a temptation to buy with missing out of the opportunity. But after the series of articles, we know to not get tempted with sales & PAT growth.

So, we go deeper ….

Zylog 02

Good return ratio 😊, Huge debtor days with increasing payable days. I also want to meet an IT platform provider who keeps on giving good credit. (Actually, I want to meet and suggest those vendors to Infosys and TCS for taking services from these vendors because Infosys and TCS do not have such good payable days. It might be possible that this management is much better than the management of Indian leading IT companies.)

I would like to go further detail of it.

Zylog 03

If we look at the common size balance sheet then the majority part of the assets side was other assets and that is acceptable in IT firms as they do not have a fixed asset a lot. But here have receivables & Cash are most. Also, cash getting reduces and borrowings getting higher. Where is the cash going? The company might be purchasing assets but as an IT firm, they do not require to have a huge asset.

Zylog 04

I dive deep to check the strength of cashflow. I found that cumulative CFO of Rs.291 cr vs cumulative PAT of Rs.674 cr. If we check cumulative FCF then it will be -Rs.38 cr.

Zylog 05

Zylog 06

Now, if we see the cash flow statement in detail then we can come to know that company has capitalized many assets so that profitability of the company gets boosts but when we see adjust to FCF then it will be different than what we have observed earlier.

If we adjust cumulative FCF with capitalized assets then it comes to -Rs.357.33 cr and what we have observed is -Rs.42 cr from FY08-12.

Disclosure – Companies mentioned in the article are just for an example & educational purpose. It is not a buy/sell/ hold recommendation.

This series contains learning from books –

Financial Shenanigans

Quality of Earnings

The Financial Numbers Game

Creative Cash Flow Reporting

10 – ONCE A DARLING, NOW AN EVIL

The tenth part of Series “Once a darling, now an evil”. This series is based on the companies which were once upon a time darling of the market and now, it has wiped out the majority of all those gains. I am trying to put some of the number-crunching facts by which we have identified ongoing issues in the companies and have saved our wealth.

I am starting this part with one of a jewelry company that has an all-time high price of ~Rs.649 in 2013 and now last traded price at Rs.1.05.

GitG01

In the first instance this company having huge sales and profit growth. This creates a temptation to buy with missing out of the opportunity. But after the series of articles, we know to not get tempted with sales & PAT growth.

So, we go deeper ….

GitG02

Huge debtor days, Debt/equity increasing so RoE% is due to the higher leverage.

I would like to go further detail of it.

GitG03

If we look at the common size balance sheet then the majority part of the assets side was other assets that have receivables & inventories. Also, cash getting reduces and borrowings getting higher. Also, when a company growing at a higher rate then what is the need for higher borrowings after using good cash balance?

GitG04

The company got debt at a lower rate. Curious and that is also at the time of higher interest rate. Also, the company has to pay lower taxes. Wow… lower interest rate and lower taxes.

GitG05

The company has FCCB which is a more dangerous kind of foreign debt.

GitG06

Negative CFO in two years and also if we compare cumulative CFO with cumulative PAT then CCFO<CPAT.

The company owns ~39 subsidiaries and associates companies which can be suspicious.

GitG07GitG08

Company has given ~Rs.1400+ cr of loan and advances to subsidiaries companies on interest-free basis and repayment is beyond seven years.

Disclosure – Companies mentioned in the article are just for an example & educational purpose. It is not a buy/sell/ hold recommendation.

This series contains learning from books –

Financial Shenanigans

Quality of Earnings

The Financial Numbers Game

Creative Cash Flow Reporting

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